“Can you please reference some sources you
used for your Hittite series?”
Seems like a simple, innocuous question. However, the first series of books I wrote include What Is An Establishment of Religion?, What Is Secular Humanism?, and What Is Science? As SCOTUS Justice Scalia wrote “The United States Supreme Court has held that secular humanism is a religion. Belief in evolution is a central tenet of that religion.” Antonin Scalia, in the case Edwards v. Aguillard, U.S. Supreme Court, 1987
Modern authors are so indoctrinated in the Established Religion of Secular Humanism that using them as sources for ancient history are worse than useless. You will need to spend considerable time unlearning their indoctrination before you can begin learning actual history. So here a few essentials before recommending sources.
1) Archbishop Ussher’s dates are essentially correct. Sir Isaac Newton also wrote a history of the world based on the evidence in Scripture and came to similar conclusions, that the world was created approximately 4000 BC. Sir Isaac Newton admitted that his dates could be off by decades, which is reasonable. Both Ussher and Newton use the Hebrew OT Masoretic text. The Greek translation of the Old Testament, the LXX or Septuagint add names to the geneaological records, making the creation centuries older. The first tablet of the Sumerian king’s list is different from the rest of the tablets. The rest use a base 60 numbering system. However, if the first tablet uses a base 10 system, then the number of kings are the same number and lived for the same number of years as the geneaological records in Genesis 5 between Adam and Noah in the Hebrew Masoretic text.
2) There are many minor adjustments which been made recently. Ussher has the date of the Exodus 1491 BC. Theile The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings cross references Assyrian chronology and dates the Exodus 1446 BC. The Hebrew chronology during the time of Hezekiah is uncertain. Many dissertations have shifted the exact dates back towards Ussher’s 1491 BC, but not quite that far. https://answersingenesis.org/bible-history/evidentialism-the-bible-and-assyrian-chronology/
3) Carbon 14 dating is based on a constant formation of 14C by cosmic ray bombardment of 14N high in earth’s upper atmosphere. However, a ratio of 14C:12C the nonradioactive stable isotope is necessary to arrive at a date. The established religion of Secular Humanism begins with the belief that 12C has been stable and constant for over 100,000 years. The worldwide catastrophic flood 1656 years after creation was caused by the single antediluvian continent breaking up. That volcanic activity resulted in a massive outpouring of 12C. According to Ussher the flood occurred approximately 2350 BC. The levels of environmental 12C did not fall to the levels we have measured for the past 2,000 years until about 600 BC. Items radiocarbon dated during the reigns of Nebuchadnezzar and his father Nabopolasser are in line with Ussher’s dates. The Minoan eruption of Thera is 14C dated between 1640-1540 BC. Making the reasonable assumption that the Thera eruption coincides with the Exodus, 14C dating is between 60-160 years older than actual dates at this time. Artifacts 14C dated 2300 years old and older have actual dates very soon after the flood.
4) Like the Assyrians and the Egyptians, the Hittites have an Old Kingdom, an intermediate period, and a New Kingdom. There are many works correlating the dates of the Egyptian and Hebrew chronologies. This one is usable. https://answersingenesis.org/answers/books/unwrapping-pharaohs/
Comparing Egyptian and Hebrew chronologies, the Exodus ruined Egypt. That fits best with the end of Egypt’s Middle Kingdom, which ended with the mysterious disappearance of the 13th dynasty. This begins the ruin of Egypt, the 2nd Intermediate Period. During this time Amalek ruled Egypt. Saul’s campaign to destroy Amalek brought about New Kingdoms of Egypt, the Assyrians, and the Hittites at the same time as the Israelite monarchy. The tel el Amarna letters, found in Egypt, written in Akkadian cuneiform, document diplomatic relationships during the New Kingdom. The letters between the Hittite Queen Puduhepa and Ramses the Great are especially enlightening. http://www.amarnaproject.com
5) The 8th century BC library of
Ashurbanipal in Ninevah: https://www.academia.edu/2394909/The_British_Museums_Ashurbanipal_Library_Project
The Ugarit texts: http://www.israel-a-history-of.com/ugarit.html
The official chronicles of Babylon and Assyria: https://www.livius.org/sources/about/mesopotamian-chronicles/
The Babylonians reference the Hittites as the Hattie, with some spelling variations.
6) Many years of searching pyramid texts,
funerary art, and obscure but interesting documents to learn how ordinary
people lived in the 2nd millenium BC. The most massive and helpful
collection along this line is Sacred Texts. https://www.sacred-texts.com
The editor of the sacred-texts website died in 2012 and to the best of my knowledge the site is maintained, but not updated.
7) The most important source for Hittites, the
library of their capital city Hattusa.
I hope that this minor overview is just a start. These are “some sources.” I read several thousand cuneiform documents while writing these books. Translations, not the original Akkadian. That is not as difficult as it seems, since most cuneiform tablets are small and only a few sentences contain important information. One interesting fact I learned along the way is that over 2 million cuneiform tablets have never been translated. If anyone needs something to do…
3 thoughts on “Ancient Sources — Post by Michael J. Findley”
our Moshe Emes series alignment aligns with this being 5779 anno mundi, the 2448 Exodus being 5779-2448= 3331 YA
3760- 2448 = 1312 before Christian era
with the Modern Kingdom emerging thanks to Ehud victory over the Hyksos coalition, so several hundred years prior to King Saul.
Reference Torah Discovery Chronology aka ‘Bible Chronology, untying a knot’
Thank you for your comments. As you are well aware, I believe that there is still a great deal we are unaware of, awaiting discovery. I use Ussher’s dates because they are well known and approximately correct. People who deny that the Exodus took place or claim 1291 BC date during Egypt’s New Kingdom will disagree completely. I pray that the Holy Spirit will open their eyes.
In Torah Discovery Chronology we have Ramses II as concurrent w/ King Solomon, perhaps his father in law. 400 years after the 2448 +108= 2556 anno mundi start of the new kingdom.
While it does not add up under the current inflated consensus, we have solid benchmarks in the EA letter span that were during the life of Samuel, and the son of Ramses II ‘Israel Stele’ that was just after King Solomon when the kingdom split and ‘ (united) Israel was no more’.
link at the aka Bible Chronology http://www.amazon.com/Bible-Chronology-Abraham-scripture-ancient/dp/1975609328